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The Xoloitzcuintli (also known as the Mexican Hairless Dog or the Xolo) is one of the rarest and oldest breeds in the world. It is believed that it has been bred over 3000 years ago. The Aztecs prized this breed for its medicinal properties and divine origin. The Xoloitzcuintli was on the verge of extinction, but the efforts of enthusiasts managed to restore this beautiful dog.

Height: 10-23 inches  Weight: 10-50 pounds  Lifespan: 15-20 years


A distinctive feature of the Xoloitzcuintli is his long neck and large bat-like ears. This dog has an extreme sense of hearing. The Xoloitzcuintli is well-shaped, hardy, very agile and has a graceful posture. Specialists consider them primitive.


The Xoloitzcuintli is a very loyal dog that gets strongly tied to his owner. He is tender and lovable. The Xolo is a good dog-guard; he will jealously protect his family, home and territory. These dogs will bark and howl if they notice the danger threatening the family. Xolos communicate well with teenagers and dogs within the same house. However, they can be very aggressive towards strangers. This dog breed is delicate and very emotional, so make sure not to neglect it. Therefore, this breed is not recommended for inexperienced dog breeders.

Coat / Care:

There are two varieties of the Xoloitzcuintli: hairless and coated. Hairless Xolos have small tufts of hair at the top of the head and at the tip of the tail. The skin is smooth and soft, quite resistant to various external influences. Coated Xolos have short, smooth and shiny skin. They do not shed and lack the typical doggy odor. Hence, they are hypoallergenic. Healthy skin is an extremely important aspect. It should be washed only in case of urgent need. In summer, be sure to use sunscreen and lotions, but do not abuse it, because it can clog pores and cause acne. The coated Xoloitzcuintli requires minimal care.

Health Problems:

This breed is prone to tooth loss, food allergies, skin infections and exhibits increased sensitivity to medicines. Also, this dog has a tendency to digestive problems.


Early and intensive socialization is very important for the Xoloitzcuintli. This dog learns with ease, especially if the teacher knows how to motivate him. Education needs to be rigorous and consistent but fair, and the dog should be treated with respect and love. The Xoloitzcuintli obeys his owner and eager to please him. He is a working dog, particularly suitable for Canistherapy.


The Xoloitzcuintli can bear living in a city apartment. This breed of dog is not too active, so it prefers walking on a leash or sunbathing in the yard with a sturdy fence. Xoloitzcuintlis should not be exposed to cold temperatures without clothes.

Photo credit: www.Petful.com/Flickr

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